Intimate Partner Violence


Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), sometimes known as domestic violence, refers to any kind of abuse directed at one household member by another and affects 20-30% of women in the United States. The abuse can be physical, emotional, economical,  psychological, or sexual. While intimate partner violence has profound implications for the health status of all women, the risk for intimate partner violence to begin or be exacerbated increases significantly during pregnancy. Particularly troubling is the fact that the risk for IPV appears to be highest among pregnant adolescents, a group already facing unique physical and emotional challenges.


Research indicates that intimate partner violence is a significant source of ill-health and injury for women. Women who are abused by an intimate partner or family member are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy, delay entry into prenatal care, and experience poor pregnancy outcomes. They are more likely to manifest perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) and post-traumatic stress, have higher rates of STDs including HIV, and are at greater risk for problematic substance use. Additionally, the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence and child abuse is estimated to range from 30-60%, adding further danger to the postnatal period.

Of great concern is that intimate partner violence during pregnancy is quite common. In fact, research suggests that intimate partner violence impacts pregnancy more often than any other physiological complication of pregnancy.


In efforts to better identify and assist victims of intimate partner violence, NPA supports the following:

  • All providers of perinatal care should utilize screening tools to identify women who may be victims of intimate partner violence.
  • All patients should be screened for intimate partner violence at the time of routine gynecologic care.
  • All pregnant women should be screened for intimate partner violence at least once per trimester and whenever behavioral indicators or physical complaints suggest.
  • All healthcare providers should familiarize themselves with local or regional resources including domestic violence crisis centers, help lines, and safe spaces and should be prepared to expedite referrals when indicated.

NPA remains committed to increasing awareness, identifying those at risk, and seeking strategies to reduce or eliminate domestic violence.

National Domestic Violence Hotline 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)

You are not alone!  Advocates are here to listen.

If you are concerned about your relationship or have questions, reach out by phone 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)

1-800-787-3224 TTY

or chat online at  #IPV #DV

HELP to RAISE AWARENESS   posts for social media



Centers for Disease Control (CDC):

CDC  Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Victimization Assessment Instruments for Use in Healthcare Settings

CDC  Preventing Intimate Partner Violence Across the Lifespan: A Technical Package of  Programs, Policies, and Practices

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG):

ACOG Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women   Intimate Partner Violence 

ACOG   Routinely Screen for Intimate Partner Violence

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP):

AAP  Intimate Partner Viole‚Äčnce: The Role of the Pediatrician

AAP  The Resilience Project Domestic Intimate Partner Violence

AAP  Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic 


WEBINAR  Implementing Routine Intimate Partner Violence Screening in a Primary Care Setting

Futures Without Violence  Lesbian, Gay. Bisexual, Trans/NGC and Queer IPV


ARTICLE  Associations between intimate partner violence profiles and mental health among low-income, urban pregnant adolescents (2019)

CONTEMPORARY PEDIATRICS  Intimate partner violence targets teenagers, too

Screening Tools:

Center for Relationship Abuse Awareness  Screening and Interviewing Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence 

Stanford Medicine  Screening for Domestic Abuse

ARTICLE   STaT: A Three-Question Screen for Intimate Partner Violence

ARTICLE   Screening for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy

Guns and IPV :

Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence  Domestic Violence & Firearms

Guns and Violence Against Women: America’s Uniquely Lethal Intimate Partner Violence Problem

'This is Our Lane': Doctors Work to Close Firearm Loopholes

Reducing Firearm Injuries and Deaths in the United States: A Position Paper From the American College of Physicians


Kristy Love, Executive Director

P.O. Box 392 Lonedell, MO 63060

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